Conventions of states, and before Independence of colonies have met frequently over the past three centuries. A “Convention for proposing Amendments” held under the Constitution is a gathering of this type.
The following list itemizes all known conventions of states or colonies.
To qualify as a convention of states (or colonies), the gathering must be a temporary meeting of legislatively-authorized representatives of at least three states or colonies, convening pursuant to instructions to consult about and/or negotiate solutions to assigned problem(s). At some conventions of states, other sovereignties have been invited to participate. The convention may be charged with proposing solutions or, in rare cases, with presenting solutions that participating states or colonies agree in advance to accept. Legislative authorization may be direct (by a specific statute or resolution) or indirect (by prior legislation or standing order).
In the list below, some conventions are identified as general. A convention is general if all states, or at least states from all regions, are invited to participate. If not identified as general, the convention is partial or regional.
Conventions of states sometimes are known by other names. Conventions meeting before establishment of the Second Continental Congress usually were called “congresses”—although they were called conventions as well. Some gatherings have been called “councils” or “committees” as well as conventions. The official name of the assembly in Washington, D.C. in 1861 was the “Washington Conference Convention,” but most history books refer to it by its unofficial nickname: the Washington Peace Conference. Similarly, twentieth-century conventions been called “commissions” (e.g., Colorado River Compact Commission). But they actually were temporary conventions of states, and should not be confused with those commissions that are permanent administrative bodies.
The first list includes the verified conventions. A convention is verified if we have reliable information of the date and place of meeting, subject matter, and states or colonies participating. The second list is of unverified conventions. A convention is unverified if we have reliable information that a meeting was held, but not as to all of those items.
Finally: Not included on the list are conventions that were called, but never met. These include, for example, the Charleston price convention called by Congress for the Southern states in 1777, the convention of Northeastern states called by Massachusetts in 1783, and the Navigation Convention called for Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland for (1786). Although these planned conclaves proved abortive, the historical records surrounding them is useful in confirming and clarifying standard interstate convention protocols.
Further information on these conventions is located at articlevinfocenter.com. Additional information on conventions up to 1787 appears in this article.
- Albany (1677) (Indian negotiations)
- Albany (1684) (Indian negotiations)
- Boston (1689) (defense issues)
- Albany (1689) (Indian negotiations)
- New York City (1690) (defense)
- New York City (1693) (defense)
- Albany (1694) (Indian negotiations)
- New York City (1704) (defense)
- Boston (1711) (defense)
- Albany (1722) (Indian negotiations)
- Albany (1744) (defense)
- Lancaster, PA (1744) (Indian negotiations)
- Albany (1745) (defense)
- Albany (1745) (Indian negotiations)
- New York City (1747) (defense)
- Albany (1751) (Indian negotiations)
- Albany (1754) (Indian negotiations & plan of union) — general
- New York City (1765) (response to Stamp Act) — general
- Fort Stanwyx (Rome, NY) (1768) (Indian negotiations)
- New York City (1774) (response to British actions)—general
- Providence, RI (1776-77) (paper currency and public credit)
- York Town, PA (1777) (price control)
- Springfield, MA (1777) (economic issues)
- New Haven, CN (1778) (price controls and other responses to inflation)
- Hartford, CN (1779) (economic issues)
- Philadelphia (1780) (price controls)—general
- Boston (1780) (conduct of Revolutionary War)
- Hartford (1780) (conduct of Revolutionary War)
- Providence, RI (1781) (war supply)
- Annapolis, MD (1786) (trade)—general
- Philadelphia (1787) (propose changes in political system)—general
- Hartford, CN (1814) (New England states’ response to the War of 1812)
- Nashville, TN (1850)(Southern response to the North)
- Washington, DC (1861)(propose a constitutional amendment)—general
- Montgomery, AL(1861) (write the Confederate constitution)
- St. Louis, MO (1889) (propose anti-trust measures)
- Santa Fe, NM & other cities (1922) (negotiate the Colorado River Compact)
- Denver & other cities (1946-49) (negotiate Upper Colorado River Basin Compact)
- Phoenix, AZ (2017) (draft and propose rules for a possible Article V convention to propose a balanced budget amendment)
- Boston(?) (1757) (defense)
- Salt Lake City (1920) (Western water issues)
- Lower Colo. River states (>1922) (unsuccessful river negotiations)
- Colorado Springs, Santa Fe (1924, 1928-29) (negotiate Rio Grande River Compact) (technically may have comprised 2-3 separate conventions)
- Washington, D.C. (1924 & intermittently thereafter)—unsuccessful negotiation regarding North Platte River)